Heathcare-associated Infections (HAIs)
Frank entered the hospital with pneumonia but upon returning home it seemed that while in the hospital he had contracted an infection of his foot. Several weeks later the infection was much worse and Frank was taken back to the hospital to determine how much of his leg would have to be amputated. There were no plans for rehab.
In 2011 75,000 patients with HAIs died during their hospitalizations.
After Rosa’s stroke she was told that in order to prevent another stroke she needed to have the blockage in her artery cleared, i.e., carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Rosa knew the risks of the procedure but went through with it. Much to her disappointment, a few months later the blockage had reappeared. One year later she still has the blockage but no stroke.
Translational research is a step in the right direction but the continued lag from the bench (research) to the bedside (clinical practice) is unacceptable. At the same time evidence based medicine (EBM) continues to be undermined by the lack of inclusion and analysis by individual characteristics as well as the tendency of clinicians and insurers to apply a rigid set of procedures that are not nuanced to the person in front of you.
Agnes was having difficulty breathing and was taken to the hospital. Her initial diagnosis was pneumonia and a UTI; then, suddenly while at the hospital she had two heart attacks. Her family was told that (1) her heart had stopped working and was severely damaged, (2) there were no treatments available, and (3) diagnostic procedures that were invasive were not possible given her age and fragility. Agnes' family was also told that she would die that night in the ICU. Agnes's family decided that given the damage to her heart that "palliative or comfort" care was the best option for her. Somehow Agnes got through the night and after two more nights in the ICU Agnes was moved to a private room. The family was told she could not go home because the levels of oxygen given were higher than allowed in a home setting.
Comfort care what does that mean? How do we know?